Bone. 2020 May 10:115412. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2020.115412. [Epub ahead of print]
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are widely used for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. One of the most serious complications associated with BPs is medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) but its incidence in patients with osteoporosis is very low ranging from 0.001-0.15%. A major predisposing factor for MRONJ is tooth extraction (TE). Controversies persist about the influence of current BP therapy regarding socket healing after TE. The aims of this study were to investigate prospectively, (i) alveolar bone healing, i.e., filling of the bony socket by new bone and (ii) mucosal healing, i.e., closure of the overlying mucosa, after TE in women receiving current BP therapy for the prevention or the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Women with osteoporosis under current treatment with BPs (BP+ group) or other anti-osteoporotic medications (BP- group) undergoing single TE were included in this study. No antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed solely for the BP therapy, but antibiotic treatment may have been required for local infectious conditions. Chlorohexidine mouthwashes were systematically prescribed in all study patients for one week after TE. New bone height (NBH) and rate of socket filling (RSF) were recorded using intraoral standardized radiographs one month and 3 months after TE (T30 and T90 respectively). The closure of the overlying mucosa was assessed by measuring the wound extent with an electronic caliper at 1 week and at 1 month after TE (T7 and T30 respectively).
At T30, NBH was not statistically different between the BP+ and BP- groups (p = .76). At T90, more than a two-fold in NBH increase was recorded for both groups with no statistically significant difference between them (p = .76). At T30 and T90, RSF was similar in both groups (p = .58 and p = .32 respectively). More than a two-fold RSF increase was founded between T30 and T90 in both groups. No demographic or BPs-related factors were correlated with the RSF at T90. At T7, the mucosa wound extent was reduced by more than two-fold with no statistically significant difference between both groups (p = .80). At this time, mucosa healing was achieved in 11.9% of the BP+ group and 10% of the BP- group (p = .99). At T30, mucosal healing was achieved in all patients but two, and at T90 it was achieved in all patients.
This study provides new insights into bone and mucosal healing in patients with osteoporosis taking BPs after TE. In this population, TE can be managed successfully with an appropriate surgical protocol and without discontinuation of BP treatment