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An update on magnesium and bone health

Mariangela Rondanelli 1 2Milena Anna Faliva 3Alice Tartara 3Clara Gasparri 4Simone Perna 5Vittoria Infantino 2Antonella Riva 6Giovanna Petrangolini 6Gabriella Peroni 3

Biometals. 2021 May 6. doi: 10.1007/s10534-021-00305-0. 

Abstract

In 2009 EFSA Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of magnesium (Mg) and maintenance of normal bone. After 2009, numerous studies have been published, but no reviews have made an update on this topic. So, the aim of this narrative review was to consider the state of the art since 2009 on relationship between Mg blood levels, Mg dietary intake and Mg dietary supplementation (alone or with other micronutrients; this last topic has been considered since 1990, because it is not included in the EFSA claims) and bone health in humans. This review included 28 eligible studies: nine studies concern Mg blood, 12 studies concern Mg intake and seven studies concern Mg supplementation, alone or in combination with other nutrients. From the various studies carried out on the serum concentration of Mg and its relationship with the bone, it has been shown that lower values are related to the presence of osteoporosis, and that about 30-40% of the subjects analyzed (mainly menopausal women) have hypomagnesaemia. Various dietetic investigations have shown that many people (about 20%) constantly consume lower quantities of Mg than recommended; moreover, in this category, a lower bone mineral density and a higher fracturing risk have been found. Considering the intervention studies published to date on supplementation with Mg, most have used this mineral in the form of citrate, carbonate or oxide, with a dosage varying between 250 and 1800 mg. In all studies there was a benefit both in terms of bone mineral density and fracture risk.