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Association Between Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index and Skeletal Muscle Mass Index With Bone Mineral Density in Post-Menopausal Women Who Have Undergone Total Thyroidectomy

Tai-Hua Chiu 1Szu-Chia Chen 2 3 4 5Hui-Chen Yu 6Jui-Sheng Hsu 6 7Ming-Chen Shih 6He-Jiun Jiang 8Wei-Hao Hsu 3 8Mei-Yueh Lee 4 8

Nutrients doi: 10.3390/nu12061683.

Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis is highly prevalent in postmenopausal women and may result in fractures and disabilities. Total thyroidectomy has also been associated with loss of bone mass. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate associations among nutritional status, skeletal muscle index and markers of bone turnover to bone mineral density in postmenopausal women who had undergone total thyroidectomy.

Methods: Fifty postmenopausal women who had undergone total thyroidectomy were included. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) was calculated using baseline body weight and serum albumin level. Skeletal muscle mass index was calculated as the appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by the height squared and assessed using DXA.

Results: Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis showed that a low GNRI was significantly associated with low lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and T-score, and that a low ASM/height2 was significantly associated with low femoral neck BMD and T-score. A low vitamin D level was significantly associated with low femoral neck BMD and T-score and low total hip BMD and T-score. A high bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level was significantly associated with low femoral neck T-score and low total hip BMD and T-score. A low insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was significantly associated with low total hip BMD and T-score.

Conclusion: In the postmenopausal women who had undergone total thyroidectomy in this study, BMD was positively associated with GNRI, skeletal muscle mass index, and levels of vitamin D and serum IGF-1, and inversely associated with bone ALP level. Nutritional status, skeletal muscle mass index and bone turnover biomarkers can be used to early identify patients with a high risk of osteoporosis in this high-risk group.