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Associations between stroke type, stroke severity, and pre-stroke osteoporosis with the risk of post-stroke fracture: A nationwide population-based study

Hung-Ping Wang 1Sheng-Feng Sung 2Hsin-Yi Yang 3Wan-Ting Huang 3Cheng-Yang Hsieh 4

J Neurol Sci doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2021.117512. 

Abstract

Background Recognizing the post-stroke fracture risk factors is crucial for targeted intervention and primary fracture prevention. We aimed to investigate whether stroke types, stroke severity, and pre-stroke osteoporosis are associated with post-stroke fracture. Methods In a nationwide cohort, we identified previously fracture-free patients who suffered from first-ever stroke, either acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), between 2003 and 2015. Information regarding stroke severity, osteoporosis, comorbidity, and medication information was collected. The outcomes analyzed included hip fracture, spine fracture, and other fractures. Cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were used to estimate the cumulative incidence of fractures over time after accounting for competing risk of death. Multivariable Fine and Gray models were used to determine the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Of the 41,895 patients with stroke, the 5-year CIFs of any incident fracture, hip fracture, spine fracture, and other fractures were 8.03%, 3.42%, 1.87%, and 3.05%, respectively. The fracture risk did not differ between patients with AIS and ICH. While osteoporosis increased the risk of post-stroke fracture (adjusted HR [95% CI],1.42 [1.22-1.66]), stroke severity was inversely associated with post-stroke fracture (moderate, 0.88 [0.81-0.96] and severe, 0.39 [0.34-0.44], compared with mild stroke severity). Conclusions Stroke survivors had an over 8% fracture risk at 5 years after stroke. Mild stroke severity and osteoporosis were significantly associated with post-stroke fracture risk, whereas stroke type was not. Our results call for effective measures for bone health screening and fracture prevention in patients with stroke.