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Bone health among older persons in medical clinic: A clinical audit

Teh CL1Chuah SL2Lee HK3Wan SA2Leong TS2Tan FHS4Lau BK4.

Med J Malaysia. 2020 Mar;75(2):191-193.

 

Abstract

Osteoporosis is commonly underdiagnosed and undertreated. We performed a clinical audit to assess the risk factors and clinical care for osteoporosis among older persons who attended medical clinic during a 4-week period in August 2013. There was a total of 128 patients with a mean age of 73.1±5.8 years, and 20.3%. had a history of fall. Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) scores assessment showed 14.2% and 68.8% had a 10-year risk of major osteoporotic and hip fractures respectively. Only 6.3% underwent Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and 73.4% did not receive any preventive treatment for osteoporosis. Older persons attending medical clinic at high risk of osteoporosis fractures did not receive appropriate screening and treatment. There is a need to improve the suboptimal care for bone health among older persons.

CONCLUSIONS

Loss of skeletal muscle is a major problem associated with ageing. The decline in muscle quantity and quality leads to decreased quality of life and increased mortality. Many studies have sought to identify the intrinsic and external factors that cause muscle ageing and to discover targeted interventions for age-related muscle atrophy. miRNAs in mammalian genomes are essential for the development and function of life, and a large number of miRNAs are important regulators. Their expression profiles change with age, functionally contributing to ageing-related loss of muscle quantity and quality. With continuous updating of technology to detect miRNAs, the understanding of the roles of miRNAs as a whole will become more comprehensive. This review article describes how, by negatively regulating the expression of target genes, miRNAs modulate the processes involved in sarcopenia and also discusses the prospect of miRNAs as a treatment for sarcopenia. In summary, miRNAs are promising small molecule therapeutics and it is hoped that, through both large scale validation research and carefully designed functional research using in vitro and in vivo systems, miRNAs will, in the future, become an effective means of treating refractory diseases.