Clin Chim Acta. 2020 Apr 8;506:236-240. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2020.03.040. [Epub ahead of print]
Increasing knowledge on inflammatory mediators and bone metabolism highlights the relationship between inflammation and bone disease. During acute illness, inflammatory cells and cytokines modulate bone cells activity so as to mobilize calcium seemingly to supply the metabolic requirements for immune response. In case of long lasting, chronic inflammatory states a condition of maladaptive, smouldering inflammation is realized and negatively affects calcium bone balance. Aging, now nicknamed inflammaging, is regarded as a chronic inflammatory condition, characterized by increased circulating inflammatory cytokines, that contributes to the development of osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. In patients with renal insufficiency, the development of bone and mineral disorders (so called CKD-MBD «syndrome») is now a recognized pathogenic factor for the seemingly accelerated process of aging and for the increased risk of cardiovascular death in these patients. The adaptive changes in mineral and bone metabolism developing in the early stages of chronic kidney disease could represent a hypothetical model of accelerated aging, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease.