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Cholinergic control of bone development and beyond

JanineSpieker1JohannesL.Frieß2LauraSperling3GopenathThangaraj4AstridVogel-Höpker5Paul G.Layer

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106405Get rights and content

Highlights

•In Introduction, we review extensively that cholinergic actions affect the health status of bones in vertebrates including man.

•In Results, we briefly summarize our in vivo and in vitro studies on bone development of chick and mouse.

•Results document that cholinergic actions in bone development are driven mainly by classic cholinergic, but non-neural cycles (e.g., by acetylcholine).

•In addition, both cholinesterases can exert distinct ACh-independent roles.

•Considering their tremendous medical impact, our results bring forward novel research directions that deserve to be pursued.

Abstract

There is ample evidence that cholinergic actions affect the health status of bones in vertebrates including man. Nicotine smoking, but also exposure to pesticides or medical drugs point to the significance of cholinergic effects on bone status, as reviewed here in Introduction. Then, we outline processes of endochondral ossification, and review respective cholinergic actions. In Results, we briefly summarize our in vivo and in vitro studies on bone development of chick and mouse [1,2], including (i) expressions of cholinergic components (AChE, BChE, ChAT) in chick embryo, (ii) characterisation of defects during skeletogenesis in prenatal ChE knockout mice, (iii) loss-of-function experiments with beads soaked in cholinergic components and implanted into chicken limb buds, and finally (iv) we use an in vitro mesenchymal 3D-micromass model that mimics cartilage and bone formation, which also had revealed complex crosstalks between cholinergic, radiation and inflammatory mechanisms [3]. In Discussion, we evaluate non-cholinergic actions of cholinesterases during bone formation by considering: (i) how cholinesterases could function in adhesive mechanisms; (ii) whether and how cholinesterases can form bone-regulatory complexes with alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and/or ECM components, which could regulate cell division, migration and adhesion. We conclude that cholinergic actions in bone development are driven mainly by classic cholinergic, but non-neural cycles (e.g., by acetylcholine); in addition, both cholinesterases can exert distinct ACh-independent roles. Considering their tremendous medical impact, these results bring forward novel research directions that deserve to be pursued.