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Clinical Effects of Early or Surgical Menopause

Kingsberg SA1, Larkin LC, Liu JH.

Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Mar 10. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003729. [Epub ahead of print]

Increasing numbers of women experience early menopause due in part to surgical treatment for benign gynecologic disorders and the rise in risk-reducing bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in women with BRCA mutations. Unfortunately, the adverse health consequences of early loss of ovarian function accelerate the menopausal state and affect multiple systems, including cardiovascular, neurologic, bone, and connective tissue, and affect quality of life owing to vasomotor symptoms, mood, sleep, and sexual function. Yet many clinicians and women remain reluctant to use hormone therapy because of the Women’s Health Initiative’s adverse findings, even though they are not applicable to women with early menopause. This review examines the effects of early menopause and highlights the critical role of hormone therapy in this population.