Pharmaceutics. 2019 Dec 2;11(12). pii: E643. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics11120643.
For efficient transdermal delivery of alendronate (ALN) for anti-osteoporotic therapy, we developed a hyaluronic acid (HA) gel sheet that was prepared simply by enhancing HA noncovalent interactions using phosphoric acid and polyhydric alcohol (propanediol and glycerin). HA solution viscosity increased after addition of phosphoric acid, and the HA gel sheet formed after heated drying. The HA gel sheet could be converted to high viscosity state by addition of water. These results indicate that phosphoric acid enhances the noncovalent interactions of HA molecules. The HA gel sheet elicited no skin irritation over 7 days after a 24-h application. The permeation of ALN across rat and human skin was 109 and 7.17 µg/cm2, respectively, up to 24 h after application of the ALN-loaded HA gel sheet, which is sufficient for clinical treatment of osteoporosis. The bioavailability of ALN in rats was ~20% after application of the ALN-loaded HA gel sheet, and plasma calcium levels were effectively reduced 3 days after sheet application. Furthermore, in a rat osteoporosis model, the reduction in tibial bone density was suppressed by treatment with the ALN-loaded HA gel sheet. These results indicate that our phosphoric acid-mediated HA gel sheet is a promising transdermal formulation for efficient ALN delivery.