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Differences Between Muscle From Osteoporotic and Osteoarthritic Subjects: In Vitro Study by Diffusion-Tensor MRI and Histological Findings

Giulia Di Pietro 1 2, Manuel Scimeca 3, Riccardo Iundusi 1, Monica Celi 1, Elena Gasbarra 1, Umberto Tarantino 1, Silvia Capuani 4 5

DOI: 10.1007/s40520-020-01483-6

Abstract
Background: Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are strongly coupled with alterations of muscles quality and fats metabolism. However, there are no studies for investigating possible differences between osteoporotic and osteoarthritic muscles. Understanding muscle-bone and muscle-cartilage interactions would be of high clinical value.

Aim: Investigate potential microstructural and physiological differences between osteoporotic and osteoarthritic muscles by diffusion Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging (diffusion MRI) and histological findings.

Methods: Vastus-lateralis muscles excised from osteoporotic (n = 26, T Score < - 2.5, Kellgren-Lawrence ≤ 2) and osteoarthritic (n = 26, T Score > – 2.5, Kellgren–Lawrence 3 and 4) age-matched women were investigated by NMR relaxometry, diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) at 9.4 T, and histological techniques. Intramyocellular (IMCL) and extramyocellular (EMCL) lipid were quantified. The percentage and mean diameters of fibers I and II were evaluated. Relationship between mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), the DTI eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, λ3), histological findings in muscles and clinical data (Kellgren-Lawrence and T score, age, menopausal age, body mass index) were studied. Pairwise comparisons between groups were made using one-way analysis of variance and correlation between variables was assessed with linear correlation analysis (Pearson’s r coefficient).

Results: Osteoporotic muscles showed higher MD, λ1,λ2, λ3 compared to osteoarthritis ones. This is explainable with a significant higher density of IMCL droplets found inside the osteoarthritic muscles and a large amount of fibrotic tissue and IMCL infiltration between fibers, i.e. in endomysium and perimysium that lead to a more hindered diffusion. Furthermore, histological analysis suggests mitochondrial degeneration as the origin of the greatest amount of IMCL droplets in osteoarthritic muscles.

Conclusion: This work highlights differences between muscles of osteoporotic and osteoarthritic subjects that can be quantified by NMR DTI investigations.