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Disease progression associated with low bone mass in axial spondyloarthropathy patients

De Hao Liu 1Juan Chen 2Xiong Jie Zhuang 1Li Chun Chen 3

Arch Osteoporos. 2021 Apr 8;16(1):65.doi: 10.1007/s11657-021-00928-3.

Abstract

Through statistical analysis, we have found that inflammation and low femoral and lumbar spine BMD were strongly correlated with a high SIJ CT grade, and inflammation, low vitamin D levels, and a longer disease course within a certain time range influenced bone loss in axSpA.

Purpose: We investigated the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD), vitamin D, and computed tomography (CT)-based progression of disease grades of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ), and sought to identify parameters predicting low BMD in patients with axial spondyloarthropathy (axSpA).

Methods: We collected the ankylosis spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS), the course of the disease, HLA-B27 status, and vitamin D and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of 98 axSpA patients. Lumbar spine and femoral BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray (DXA), and SIJ grade was determined by CT.

Results: The axSpA patients (71 men, 27 women) with a mean age of 31.9 years (range 18-57 years) and body mass index 21.8 kg/m2 (range 15.6-30.6 kg/m2), with disease duration 4.5 years (range 0.3-30 years) were included. A longer disease course, higher CRP level, and lower femoral and lumbar spine BMD were independently related to a higher CT grade. Older age, longer disease course, elevated CRP, and high SIJ CT grade were independently related to lower BMD (femur and/or lumbar spine L1-L4 T scores ≤ -1). Older age, elevated CRP, low vitamin D levels, and high CT grade were independently associated with low femur and lumbar spine BMD. However, a longer disease course was independently related to low femur BMD, but not low lumbar spine BMD.

Conclusions: Thus, inflammation and low femoral and lumbar spine BMD were strongly correlated with a high SIJ CT grade, and inflammation, low vitamin D levels, and a longer disease course within a certain time range influenced bone loss in axSpA.