Osteoporos Int. 2019 Dec 11. doi: 10.1007/s00198-019-05166-5. [Epub ahead of print]
Various education interventions were developed for preventing or managing OP, but the effects of those interventions on older adults were inconclusive.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of educational interventions in preventing osteoporosis in older adults. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Library, and CBM (China BioMed Database) from the initial date of each database to Oct 2016.
Two investigators independently extracted essential data from qualified studies concerning the settings, population, interventions, follow-ups, and outcomes of interest, namely effects of bone mineral density tests, changes in behavior, knowledge increase, self-efficacy, medication adherence (calcium and vitamin D), and quality of life, respectively.
A total of 17 studies met the inclusion criteria and therefore were included in the current study. The overall quality of the included studies was moderate. We were unable to carry out a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity of these studies. We fond that compared with control groups, patients’ knowledge of osteoporosis increased significantly (p < .05) through all five interventions, which included PowerPoint presentations and discussion, class-based educational programs, osteoporosis self-management courses, revised health belief model and classes, computerized support programs and brush-up courses.
Studies included in the present study were all conducted in Western countries and only descriptive methods were applied in synthesis due to heterogeneity in interventions and outcomes.
Education interventions were effective in preventing osteoporosis in older adults. Future research should focus on approaching this issue quantitatively (i.e., through meta-analysis).