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Effects of anthropometric parameters on bone mineral density in women: from perimenopause to old age

Oslei de Matos  1 , Elena M P Ruthes  1 , Antonio Beira de Andrade Junior  2 , Brenda C C Lenardt  1 , Carlos Alberto Petroski  1 , André D Lass  3 , Camil Castelo-Branco  4

Gynecol Endocrinol. 2021 May 11;1-4.doi: 10.1080/09513590.2021.1925243. Online ahead of print.

Aim: To analyze the influence of body components on bone mineral density (BMD) in women from perimenopause to old age.

Material and methods: A total of 117 women were allocated into three groups according to the reproductive stage (STRAW): perimenopausal (PEM, N = 28, mean age 44.8 ± 3.6), early postmenopausal (EPM, N = 36, mean age 51.4 ± 2.8) and late postmenopausal (LPM, N = 53; mean age 64.0 ± 1.7). Total body mass, body mass index (BMI), lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), fat percentage (FP) and BMD at the lumbar spine (lBMD) and femoral neck (fBMD) were assessed.

Results: BMI, FM, LM and BMD values decreased from PEM to LPM. The total effect of FM on fBMD and lBMD was of 42% and 8% for PEM, 28% and 33% for EMP and 9% and 1% for LPM respectively. Additionally, the total effect of LM on fBMD and lBMD was 48% and 3% for PEM, 54% and 53% for EMP and 9% and 11% for LPM women respectively.

Conclusion: BMI, LM, and FM decreased with aging. All these components had great influence on both fBMD and lBMD in EMP women. Conversely, in PEM these parameters only had influence on femoral BMD, but not on lumbar spine.

These data suggests that LM is the most important component in BMD for women older than 50 years old, particularly in the hip.