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Evaluation of femoral head bone quality by Hounsfield units: a comparison with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

Rabia Mihriban Kılınc 1Ahmet Emrah Açan 2Gamze Türk 3Cem Yalın Kılınç 4İbrahim Önder Yeniçeri 1

Acta Radiol. 2021 Jun 2;2841851211021035.

 doi: 10.1177/02841851211021035. .

Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis is associated with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) and is diagnosed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Computed tomography (CT), performed in routine practice, can also be used to evaluate bone quality without additional cost.

Purpose: To determine whether Hounsfield units (HU), a standardized CT attenuation coefficient, measured from the femoral head correlated with DXA-measured BMD.

Material and methods: We evaluated 82 patients (14 men, 68 women; mean age, 67 years) undergoing femoral DXA and CT (non-enhanced abdominopelvic and hip scans) with 130 kV to determine whether HU correlated with T-scores. HU were measured by two radiologists using the largest spherical region of interest including the medullary bone of the femoral head from the junction point of the most caudal section of the femoral head with the femoral neck in 5-mm axial sections. The correlations of both sides’ HU values with their ages and DXA femur T-score were evaluated.

Results: HU values obtained from both femoral heads showed significant variation between the osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic groups (both P = 0.000) and strongly correlated with each other and DXA femur T-scores (left r = 0.75, right r = 0.73, respectively). In ROC curve analysis, predictive power of left HU values in identifying patients with osteoporotic femur DXA T-score was 0.905, and for right HU values it was 0.924. Osteoporosis cutoff values were 198 HU and 204 HU for the left and right hips, respectively.

Conclusions: HU obtained from CT performed in routine practice correlated with the DXA scores, thus providing an alternative method to determine regional bone quality without additional cost. This may be useful when choosing a fixation method, especially in trauma cases with already-performed abdominopelvic or pelvic CT in emergency services.