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Fracture risk in hypoparathyroidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis

R Pal 1S K Bhadada 2S Mukherjee 1M Banerjee 3A Kumar 4

Osteoporos Int doi: 10.1007/s00198-021-05966-8. 

Abstract

In this meta-analysis, we analyzed 7 observational studies for assessing the fracture risk in patients with hypoparathyroidism (hypoPT). We found that the risk of vertebral fractures is increased by almost 2-fold, especially those with nonsurgical hypoPT.

Purpose: Patients with hypoPT have higher bone mineral density than age- and sex-matched controls. This would theoretically translate into a lower risk of fractures, although available clinical evidence is contradictory. Hence, the present systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to collate and provide a precise summary of fracture risk in hypoPT.

Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched using appropriate keywords till March 8, 2021, to identify observational studies reporting the rate of occurrence of fractures among hypoPT patients (nonsurgical and/or postsurgical) compared to non-hypoPT subjects (controls). Study quality was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated. Subgroup analyses of nonsurgical and postsurgical hypoPT patients were also conducted.

Results: We identified 7 observational studies of high-quality pooling data retrieved from 1470 patients with hypoPT. When stratified based on the skeletal site, pooled analyses showed that hypoPT patients were at an increased risk of vertebral fractures compared to non-hypoPT controls (OR 2.22, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.03, p = 0.009, I2 = 49%, random-effects model). The increased risk of vertebral fractures was seen only in patients with nonsurgical hypoPT (OR 2.31, 95% CI: 1.32, 4.03, p = 0.003, I2 = 3%, random-effects model) but not in those with postsurgical hypoPT. hypoPT patients were not at an increased or decreased risk of any, humerus, or proximal femur/hip fractures than controls.

Conclusions: Nonsurgical hypoPT patients are at an almost 2-fold increased risk of vertebral fractures and thus need to be actively screened irrespective of the underlying BMD.