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Frequency of Osteoporosis in Black Nigerian Women Aged 50 and above with Degenerative Musculoskeletal Diseases and Fractures

O A Adewole 1S O Idowu 2M O Shoga 1M O Kayode 2O O Adelowo 3

West Afr J Med. 2021 Apr 23;38(4):342-346.

Abstract 

Background and objectives: Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by reduced bone density (and microarchitecture damage) prevalent in post-menopausal women, who are prone to fragility fractures. There is paucity of data regarding the prevalence of osteoporosis in Nigerian women. This study was carried out to evaluate the frequency of osteoporosis among Nigerian women with degenerative skeletal diseases and fractures who visited our hospital so as to suggest prevention and early treatment in order to reduce the occurrence of fragility fractures.

Methods: Women aged 50 years and older, who visited the hospital with degenerative skeletal diseases and fractures during the study period were recruited. Their ages, diagnosis, Bone Mineral Density (BMD), T-score and interpretation were recorded in an anonymous database.

Results: The ages of the 173 patients evaluated ranged between 51 and 89 years, of which 111 (64.1%) were aged between 61 and 80 years. The most common diagnosis was degenerative lumbar spine disease in 37.0% of patients, but only 13.9% had fractures. Knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) accounted for fewer cases (22.5% and 3.5% respectively). Using WHO criteria for diagnosing osteoporosis, 35 (20.2%) of the patients had osteoporosis, while 82 (47.4%) had low BMD, 52 (30.1%) were normal and 4 (2.3%) had high BMD.

Conclusions: In this study, the frequency of osteoporosis increased with age and was higher among patients with a combination of cervical and lumbar degenerative disease, followed by fractures. We, therefore, recommend routine screening of women aged 50 and above with degenerative spine disease and fractures.