Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause

Shifren JL1.

Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2018 May 21. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000380. [Epub ahead of print]



Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) describes a collection of exam findings and bothersome symptoms associated with estrogen deficiency involving changes to the labia, introitus, clitoris, vagina, urethra, and bladder. Vulvovaginal atrophy is a component of GSM. GSM is a highly prevalent medical condition with adverse effects on the health and quality of life of midlife women. There are many effective treatment options, including nonhormonal lubricants and moisturizers, physical therapy, low-dose vaginal estrogen therapy, vaginal dehydroepiandrosterone, and oral ospemifene. Despite the availability of safe and effective therapies, GSM often remains unrecognized and untreated.


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