Heart Rate and Bone Mineral Density in Older Women with Hypertension: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey

Mi‐Hyang Jung MD  Ho‐Joong Youn PhD  Sang‐Hyun Ihm PhD  Hae Ok Jung PhD Kyung‐Soon Hong PhD




To determine whether high heart rate is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in older women with hypertension.


Retrospective cohort study.


Population‐based study conducted in Korea (Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2009–10).


Postmenopausal women aged 60 and older with hypertension (N=981) divided into 2 groups according to resting heart rate, with a cut‐off value of 80 bpm, which has been found to be associated with osteoporosis.


BMD profiles and clinical and laboratory data were collected. Osteoporosis was defined as a T‐score of –2.5 or less, according to World Health Organization criteria.


BMD was significantly lower in participants with a high heart rate, even after adjustment for age, diabetes mellitus, white blood cell count, and fasting glucose and triglyceride levels. The prevalence of osteoporosis was also significantly higher in those participants. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the group with high heart rate was 1.7 times as likely (95% confidence interval=1.2–2.3) to have osteoporosis as those with a lower heart rate, independent of age, body mass index, comorbidities, and laboratory findings.


High heart rate is independently associated with lower BMD in older women with hypertension; proactive surveillance of BMD could be helpful when managing older women with hypertension and a high heart rate.


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