J Clin Periodontol. 2020 Jan 7. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.13248. [Epub ahead of print]
While the short-term effects of hormonal events on gingival inflammation have been well described, long-term effects on the periodontium have received less attention. The aim of this cross-sectional population-based study was to evaluate the association between hormone-related events and periodontitis in a representative sample of the post-menopausal women of South Korea.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
A total of 10,273 postmenopausal women representative of 6.1 million of Koreans were examined. Periodontitis and severe periodontitis were defined according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI≧3 and CPI = 4, respectively). Univariate and multivariate regression analyses using 3 different models were applied controlling for age, smoking and marital status, educational level, income, BMI, hypertension, stress and frequency of toothbrushing.
Severe periodontitis was directly associated with a longer reproductive life (p-trend = 0.027) and with a longer duration of breastfeeding (48-72 months vs. 1-18 months: OR = 1.49; 95% CI:1.01-2.21). Conversely, early menopausal age (<46 vs. 49-50 yrs: OR = 0.74; 95% CI:0.56-0.97), history of artificial menopause (OR = 0.72; 95% CI:0.53-0.97), having more than 6 pregnancies (vs. 4: OR = 0.73; 95% CI:0.55-0.97), having more than 3 abortions (vs. 0: OR = 0.51; 95% CI:0.28-0.93) and having the first birth age > 26 years (vs. <21 yrs: OR = 0.71; 95% CI:0.52-0.97) were inversely associated with severe periodontitis.
In this large nationally-representative population, severe periodontitis was related to menopausal age, reproductive life length, number of pregnancies/abortions, first birth age and breastfeeding duration, while it was not to oral contraceptive and hormone replacement therapy usages.