Menopause. 2019 Nov;26(11):1277-1283. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001393.
This randomized, clinical trial investigated whether zoledronic acid combined with oral health maintenance can improve periodontal disease associated with osteoporosis, thus reducing the risk of tooth loss.
Participants were those of the ZONE (ZOledroNate treatment in efficacy to osteoporosis) study. None of the participants had symptomatic periodontal disease at baseline. Participants received either zoledronic acid (5 mg; n = 333 [male 21, female 312]) or placebo (n = 332 [male 19, female 313]) once yearly for 2 years, and their age was 74.0 ± 5.3 (65-88) and 74.3 ± 5.4 (65-87) years, respectively. Participants were instructed to maintain good oral hygiene at baseline and every 3 months. Participants with signs or symptoms involving their oral cavity at the monthly visit with their physician were referred to dentists for examination of oral disease. All cases were included to analyze adverse events in this study. Testing for significance was conducted using Fisher exact test (P < 0.05).
The incidence of oral adverse events was significantly higher in the control group (67 cases, 20.2%) than in the zoledronic acid group (47 cases, 14.1%; P = 0.04). The frequency of symptomatic periodontal disease observed during the study was significantly higher in the control group (40 cases, 12.0%) than in the zoledronic acid group (18 cases, 5.4%; P = 0.002). Loss of teeth was more frequent in the control group (36 cases, 10.8%) than in the zoledronic acid group (24 cases, 7.2%), although the difference was not significant.
Zoledronic acid effectively prevented symptomatic periodontal disease in patients with osteoporosis who maintained good oral hygiene.