Osteoanabolic and Dual Action Drugs

Tabacco G1,2Bilezikian JP1.

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Sep 15. doi: 10.1111/bcp.13766. [Epub ahead of print]

 

Abstract

Teriparatide (TPTD) and Abaloparatide (ABL) are the only osteoanabolic drugs available, at this time, for treatment of osteoporosis. TPTD is a 34-amino acid fragment that is identical in its primary sequence to the 34 amino acids of full-length human parathyroid hormone [hPTH(1-84)]. ABL is identical to parathyroid hormone related peptide (PTHrP) through the first 22 residues with significantly different amino acids inserted thereafter, between residues 22 and 34. The osteoanabolic actions of PTH are due directly to its effects on cells of the osteoblast lineage and indirectly by stimulating IGF-I synthesis and suppressing sclerostin and associated enhancement of Wnt signaling. Both TPTD and ABL are ligands that bind to and activate the PTH receptor type 1 (PTHR1) receptor but they appear to do so differently: ABL favors the transient, more anabolic configuration of the receptor. Both TPTD and ABL reduce the risk of vertebral fractures and non-vertebral fractures. Both drugs are administered for a maximum of 24 months, and should be followed by an anti-resorptive agent to maintain gains in BMD. Romosozumab, a monoclonal antibody that binds to and inhibits sclerostin, appears to have dual actions by stimulating bone formation and reducing bone resorption. In the pivotal clinical trial, romosozumab, administered as a 210 mg monthly subcutaneous dose, significantly reduced new vertebral fractures and in a subsequent study reduced both vertebral and non-vertebral fractures.

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