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Osteoporosis and Implant-Related Complications After Anatomic and Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

Aaron J Casp 1, Samuel R Montgomery Jr, Jourdan M Cancienne, Stephen F Brockmeier, Brian C Werner

DOI: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-18-00537

Abstract
Introduction: Osteoporosis is a widespread and growing medical condition, with significant orthopaedic implications. However, the effect of osteoporosis on outcomes after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is not well understood. The goal of the present study was to characterize the incidence of osteoporosis in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty and to examine whether patients with osteoporosis undergoing anatomic and reverse TSA are at an increased risk of prosthetic-related complications.

Methods: Complication rates were calculated for patients with osteoporosis who underwent anatomic and reverse TSA as separate cohorts within 2 years of surgery including loosening/osteolysis, periprosthetic fracture, periprosthetic dislocation, and revision shoulder arthroplasty and compared using a multivariable logistic regression analysis to control for patient demographics and comorbidities during comparisons, including the indication for reverse TSA.

Results: The prevalence of an osteoporosis diagnosis at the time of surgery was 14.3% for anatomic TSA patients and 26.2% of reverse TSA patients. Anatomic TSA patients with osteoporosis experienced significantly higher rates of periprosthetic fracture (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; P = 0.017) and revision shoulder arthroplasty (OR, 1.21; P = 0.009) within 2 years of surgery compared with matched controls without osteoporosis. Patients in the reverse TSA group with osteoporosis also had significantly higher rates of periprosthetic fracture (OR, 1.86; P = 0.001) and revision shoulder arthroplasty (OR, 1.42; P = 0.005) within 2 years of surgery compared with matched controls.

Discussion: A significant number of patients undergoing both anatomic and reverse TSA have a concurrent diagnosis of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis represents a significant independent risk factor for periprosthetic fracture and revision shoulder arthroplasty within 2 years of surgery, regardless of the type of implant. Patients with osteoporosis should be counseled on their increased risk of complications after shoulder arthroplasty.