Osteoporos Int. 2019 Dec 17. doi: 10.1007/s00198-019-05225-x. [Epub ahead of print]
We evaluated the associations between nutrients, dietary patterns or compliance to dietary guidelines and bone health among postmenopausal women from the CoLaus/OsteoLaus cohort. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis consume a high amount of vegetables but insufficient amount of dairy products and calcium to benefit from their adherence to dietary guidelines.
Diet plays a significant role in the prevention of osteoporosis (OP). We evaluated the associations between nutrients, dietary patterns or compliance (expressed in odds of meeting) to dietary Swiss guidelines and bone health (T score < – 2.5 SD, TBS < 1230) among postmenopausal women.
One thousand two hundred fifteen women (64.3 ± 7.5 years) from the CoLaus/OsteoLaus cohort (Lausanne, Switzerland) had their dietary intake assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Bone mineral density (BMD), trabecular bone score (TBS) and vertebral fractures were evaluated with DXA. OP risk factors, calcium supplements (> 500 mg) and prevalent major OP fractures were assessed by questionnaire.
One hundred eighty of 1195 women had OP according to BMD, 87/1185 a low TBS and 141/1215 prevalent major OP fractures. In multivariate analysis (adjusted for total energy intake, age, antiosteoporotic treatment, educational level, BMI, sedentary status and diabetes), OP women consumed more vegetable proteins (21.3 ± 0.4 vs 19.6 ± 0.2 g/day), more fibres (18.2 ± 0.5 vs 16.5 ± 0.2 g/day), less animal proteins (40.0 ± 1.1 vs 42.8 ± 0.4 g/day), less calcium (928 ± 30 vs 1010 ± 12 mg/day) and less dairy products (175 ± 12 vs 215 ± 5 g/day), all p ≤ 0.02. According to guidelines, OP women had a tendency to higher compliance for vegetables (OR (95% CI) 1.50 (0.99-2.26)) and a lower compliance for dairy (OR (95% CI) 0.44 (0.22-0.86)) than those without OP. Women taking calcium supplements consumed significantly higher amounts of dairy products. No association was found between TBS values or prevalent OP fractures and any dietary components.
Postmenopausal women with OP consume a high amount of vegetables but insufficient amount of dairy products and calcium. TBS does not seem to be influenced by diet.