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Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women in Ho Municipality: A Cross-Sectional Study

Setroame AM1, Kormla Affrim P2, Abaka-Yawson A1, Kwadzokpui PK1, Eyram Adrah F1, Bless H1, Mohammed L1, Bawah AT1, Alidu HW1.

Biomed Res Int. 2020 Apr 29;2020:2168381. doi: 10.1155/2020/2168381. eCollection 2020.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 185 participants: 88 premenopausal and 97 postmenopausal women obtaining healthcare service from Ho Teaching Hospital (HTH) and Ho Municipal Hospital from November 2018 to January 2020. Questionnaires were administered, and direct anthropometric measurements were taken. Blood samples were collected between 8:00 am and 10:00 am after overnight fast (12 to 18 hours; ≥8 hours) to assess fasting blood glucose, fasting lipids, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations at HTH laboratory using standard measuring procedures. This study in diagnosing metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease employed the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria and the Bedogni fatty liver index algorithm, respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of MetS and NAFLD was 24.86% and 40.00% using NCEP-ATPIII and Bedogni fatty liver index algorithm, respectively. The prevalence of MetS and NAFLD among postmenopausal women was 32.99% and 49.48%, respectively, higher than 15.91% and 29.55%, respectively, observed among premenopausal women. The most prevalent MetS component among the study population was abdominal obesity (68.65%) which was significantly higher among the postmenopausal women (82.47%) than premenopausal women (53.41%) (<0.001). Hyperglycemia and hypertension were the major significant risk factors for developing MetS among premenopausal women whereas high triglyceride was the highest risk factor found among the postmenopausal women. Obesity and abdominal obesity were the most likely risk factors for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Comorbidities of MetS and NAFLD were significant risk factors for developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) (OR = 5.2, 95%CI = 2.2-12.4; p < 0.001).

 Conclusion: This study established a significant association between coronary artery disease and comorbidities of MetS and NAFLD among the studied participants. Both conditions were found to be more prevalent among postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women. Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent MetS component among the population. Women should be monitored for the two conditions and be educated on adopting healthy lifestyles to minimize the incidence of these conditions.