Jiesuck Park1,2, http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8479-9889Yeonyee Elizabeth Yoon1,2, Kyoung Min Kim2,3, In-Chang Hwang1,2, Wonjae Lee1,2,
Objective We investigated whether the evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) provides independent and incremental prognostic value for predicting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in women.
Methods A total of 12 681 women aged 50–80 years (mean, 63.0±7.8 years) who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were retrospectively analysed. We assessed the hazard ratio (HR) for ASCVD events (ASCVD death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke) according to the BMD or a clinical diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis, with adjustment for clinical risk factors, including age, body mass index, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, current smoking and previous fracture. We also evaluated whether the addition of BMD or a clinical diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis to clinical risk factors improved the prediction for ASCVD events.
Results In total, 468 women (3.7%) experienced ASCVD events during follow-up (median, 9.2 years). Lower BMD at the lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip was independently associated with higher risk for ASCVD events (adjusted HR per 1-standard deviation decrease in BMD: 1.16, p<0.001; 1.29, p<0.001; 1.38, p<0.001; respectively). A clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis was also independently associated with higher risk for ASCVD events (adjusted HR: 1.79, p<0.001). The addition of BMD or a clinical diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis to clinical risk factors demonstrated significant incremental value in discriminating ASCVD events (addition of total hip BMD, p for difference <0.001).
Conclusion The evaluation of BMD provides independent and incremental prognostic value for ASCVD in women and thus may improve risk stratification in women.