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Revisiting the effects of menopause on the skin: functional changes, clinical studies, in vitro models and therapeutic alternatives

Reus TL1Brohem CA2Schuck DC3Lorencini M4.

Mech Ageing Dev. 2019 Dec 4:111193. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2019.111193. [Epub ahead of print]

 

Abstract

Menopause is a stage in a woman’s life characterized by twelve months of amenorrhoea. This transition happens due to changes in ovarian follicular activity, leading to endocrine, biological and clinical modifications. The main hormones related to these changes and symptoms are oestradiol, LH, FSH, AMH, Inhibin B and GnRH. It is important to point out that the skin is very affected by all these hormone changes, leading to a decrease in collagen content, water content, elasticity, thickness and impacting on all skin layers quality. Aiming to help women go through this period of their lifetimes with a better quality of life, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries have studied formulations to improve skin quality. In order to study the safety and efficacy of these products, in vitro methods have been developed in order to mimic menopause and aged skin. In addition to that, many clinical methodologies for skin features assessment have also been improved and applied to evaluate the efficacy of treatments or compounds for menopause. Studying and improving skin models and skin evaluation methodologies may help in the identification of therapeutic targets, treatments, drugs and cosmetics along with new insights for future research in the dermatology field.

Conclusion

 The quality of the skin and the menopausal process are closely linked. Regardless of the time in one’s life, women desire to feel good about their skins. To accomplish this, skin treatments, cosmetics and cosmeceuticals have been developed. A good quality treatment may lead to an increase in skin density, Journal Pre-proof thickness, hydration and firmness and a decrease in wrinkles (Herman et al., 2013). Therefore, studying and improving skin models may enable a better representation of the challenges facing the clinics and may aid in the identification of therapeutic targets, treatments, drugs and cosmetics along with new insights for future research in the dermatology field.