Smoking and Diabetes as Predictive Factors of Accelerated Loss of Muscle Mass in Middle-Aged and Older Women: A Six-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

Lee N1Choi CJ1.

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2019 May 23. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2018.7527. [Epub ahead of print]




Background: Preservation of muscle mass during aging reduces the risk of frailty and age-related chronic diseases. We investigated the lifestyle, psychological factors, and common cardiometabolic diseases associated with accelerated muscle loss in middle-aged and older women. Materials and Methods: A total of 881 women aged 40 years and older who underwent regular health checkup at a tertiary care hospital in Korea in 2010-2011 and underwent a 6-year follow-up were included in this study. Lifestyle and health statuses were evaluated through a standardized questionnaire and laboratory testing. Muscle mass was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results:The accelerated loss group showing appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) loss >3% for 6 years represented 24.4% (n = 215) of the total participants. Current smoking women presented a higher odds ratio (OR) for accelerated loss of ASM than nonsmoking individuals after adjusting for age, body mass index, exercise, caloric intake, alcohol consumption, menopausal state, and diabetes mellitus (DM) (OR 3.53, confidence interval [95% CI] 1.28-9.74, p = 0.015). Women with DM showed a higher OR than non-DM individuals after adjusting for the aforementioned variables and smoking status (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.39-6.14, p = 0.005). Conclusion: Current smoking and DM are predictors for accelerated muscle mass loss in middle-aged and older women. Smokers and DM patients need to monitor muscle mass changes and apply preventive intervention steps. Smoking cessation and good glycemic control are required not only for reducing cardiovascular risk but also for improving muscle health.


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