Biol Trace Elem Res. 2019 Aug 31. doi: 10.1007/s12011-019-01867-4. [Epub ahead of print]
Iron is one of the important trace elements in life activities. Abnormal iron metabolism increases the incidence of many skeletal diseases, especially for osteoporosis. Iron metabolism plays a key role in the bone homeostasis. Disturbance of iron metabolism not only promotes osteoclast differentiation and apoptosis of osteoblasts but also inhibits proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, which eventually destroys the balance of bone remodeling. The strength and density of bone can be weakened by the disordered iron metabolism, which increases the incidence of osteoporosis. Clinically, compounds or drugs that regulate iron metabolism are used for the treatment of osteoporosis. The goal of this review summarizes the new progress on the effect of iron overload or deficiency on osteoporosis and the mechanism of disordered iron metabolism on osteoporosis. Explaining the relationship of iron metabolism with osteoporosis may provide ideas for clinical treatment and development of new drugs.
Conclusions and Future Directions In summary, iron has an important role in bone metabolism and bone remodeling balance. Iron overload or deficiency would affect the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, resulting in decreased bone mass and increased risk of osteoporosis and fracture. The mechanism of osteoporosis caused by iron overload has been clearly studied, and the use of iron-chelating agents improves osteoporosis caused by iron overload, while the mechanism of iron deficiency leading to osteoporosis is still poorly understood. It is necessary to further study the effects of iron deficiency on the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Explaining the mechanism of iron deficiency with osteoporosis may provide ideas for clinical treatment and development of new drugs.