Cipriani C1, Colangelo L1, Santori R1, Renella M1, Mastrantonio M1, Minisola S1, Pepe J1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020 Mar 24;11:122. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2020.00122. eCollection 2020.
The multiple endocrine functions of bone other than those related to mineral metabolism, such as regulation of insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis, and energy metabolism, have recently been discovered. In vitro and murine studies investigated the impact of several molecules derived from osteoblasts and osteocytes on glucose metabolism. In addition, the effect of glucose on bone cells suggested a mutual cross-talk between bone and glucose homeostasis. In humans, these mechanisms are the pivotal determinant of the skeletal fragility associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Metabolic abnormalities associated with diabetes, such as increase in adipose tissue, reduction of lean mass, effects of hyperglycemia per se, production of the advanced glycation end products, diabetes-associated chronic kidney disease, and perturbation of the calcium-PTH-vitamin D metabolism, are the main mechanisms involved. Finally, there have been multiple reports of antidiabetic drugs affecting the skeleton, with differences among basic and clinical research data, as well as of anti-osteoporosis medication influencing glucose metabolism. This review focuses on the aspects linking glucose and bone metabolism by offering insight into the most recent evidence in humans.