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The Role of Diet in Osteoporotic Fracture Healing: a Systematic Review

Chiavarini M1Naldini G2Fabiani R3.

Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2020 Mar 14. doi: 10.1007/s11914-020-00573-8. [Epub ahead of print]

 

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Summarize the in vivo evidences on the association between nutrition and osteoporosis fracture healing.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Osteoporotic fractures constitute a considerable public health burden. The healing capacity of fractures is influenced by local factors related to the fracture and by general factors (e.g., age, sex, osteoporosis, muscular mass, smoking, alcohol, drugs, and diet). The systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA statement. From the literature search on PubMed and Web of Science, from January 2016 to October 2019, twelve studies were selected and resulted highly variable in samples, exposure, methods, outcomes, and outcome assessment. Eleven studies were conducted on laboratory animals. Only one study aimed to investigate the impact of nutritional status on fracture healing in osteoporotic patients. In this review, the role of calcium/vitamin D supplementation remained controversial, while sialoglycoprotein supplementation, phytoestrogen-rich herb extract, flavonoids, and phosphorylated peptides showed a positive effect on osteoporotic fracture healing.

Conclusions Nutrition has a relevant influence on bone health. This systematic review reported the beneficial effects of macronutrients (i.e., sialoglycoprotein and phosphorylated peptides) and foods (i.e., flavonoid- and phytoestrogen-rich herbs), and the controversial effect of micronutrients (i.e., calcium and vitamin D) on osteoporotic fracture healing. Scientific evidence on the effects of diet and/or dietary supplementation on osteoporotic fracture healing remain scarce and not sufficient to perform the meta-analysis. More studies are needed to provide evidence to improve osteoporosis fracture healing in human.