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Timing of insertion affects expulsion in patients using the levonorgestrel 52 mg intrauterine system for noncontraceptive indications

Sara Harris Bliss Kaneshir Hyeong Jun Ahn Lynne Saito-Tom

Published:December 04, 2020DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2020.11.012

Abstract

Objective

To evaluate levonorgestrel 52 mg intrauterine system (IUS) expulsion risk by menstrual cycle day of insertion (days 1–8 vs days 9 and beyond) in women using the IUS for noncontraceptive indications.

Study design

We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with a levonorgestrel IUS inserted for the management of noncontraceptive, gynecologic conditions at Kaiser Permanente-Hawaii between January 2009 and December 2010. We used multivariable logistic regression models to estimate the likelihood of IUS expulsion adjusting for demographic and clinical factors and a Kaplan-Meier curve for survival analysis.

Results

Of 176 patients identified, insertion occurred in 42 patients in cycle days 1 to 8 and 87 patients after day 8. Patient follow-up within the Kaiser system ranged from 1 to 71 months. Thirty-nine (22%) patients experienced expulsion, 16 (38%) and 15 (17%) for the 2 timing groups, respectively. Expulsion was more likely if the IUS placement occurred during the menstrual cycle days 1 to 8 (adjusted odds ratio 3.57 [95% confidence interval 1.13, 11.31]), which was consistent with the Kaplan-Meier analysis ( p = 0.008).

Conclusion

Levonorgestrel IUS expulsion among women using the IUS for noncontraceptive indications occurred more frequently if insertion occurred during the first eight days of the menstrual cycle.

Implications

In women planning to use the levonorgestrel IUS to treat gynecologic conditions such as abnormal uterine bleeding, dysmenorrhea, and endometrial hyperplasia, providers should consider waiting until after cycle day 8 to perform insertion