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Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Adnexal Cysts With a Low Risk of Malignancy: Our Experience and Recommendations

Díaz de la Noval B1Rodríguez Suárez MJ1Fernández Ferrera CB1Valdés Lafuente D1Arias Cailleau R1Pérez Arias H1Torrejón Becerra JC1Suárez Gil P2Lucio González LR1.

J Ultrasound Med. 2020 Apr 16. doi: 10.1002/jum.15283. [Epub ahead of print]




The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of ultrasound (US)-guided aspiration for the management of low-risk adnexal cysts.


A longitudinal cohort of women with a low-risk adnexal cyst who underwent transvaginal US-guided aspiration from January 2012 to April 2018 were included. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis, without anesthesia, sedation, or antibiotics. The posttreatment follow-up protocol included transvaginal US at 3 and 12 months. Potential risk factors for recurrence (ie, age, menopausal status, comorbidities, symptoms, cyst diameter, incomplete emptying, and location) were analyzed by multiple logistic regression.


A total of 156 patients were included. The median (interquartile range) cyst diameter was 66 (58-80) mm. Fifty-seven (36.5%) cases were resolved by US-guided aspiration. The median follow-up time was 556.5 (344-1070.25) days. The complication rate of the procedure was 2.6% (n = 4), with 3 cases of a major complication due to a pelvic abscess and 1 case of a minor complication due to self-limited vaginal spotting. A larger cyst size (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.07; P = .002) and an older age (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.05; P = .007) at diagnosis were independent factors related to recurrence.


Based on the low resolution rate, US-guided aspiration is not an effective option for the treatment of low-risk adnexal cysts. Risk factors associated with recurrence were age and cyst size at diagnosis. Larger randomized studies are necessary to assess predictive factors for cyst recurrence.