Vitamin D replacement ameliorates serum lipoprotein functions, adipokine profile and subclinical atherosclerosis in pre-menopausal women

  1. Greco∗, D. Kocyigit1,∗, M.P. Adorni, C. Marchi, N. Ronda, F. Bernini

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2018.04.010

Highlights

  • N = 31 healthy young women with vitamin D (vitD) deficit underwent vitD replacement.
  • VitD improved total and ABCA1-mediated HDL cholesterol efflux capacity.
  • VitD red serum cholesterol loading capacity.
  • VitD replacemucedent ameliorated adipokine profile and sub-clinical atherosclerosis.
  • Our data support vitD replacement for prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

Abstract

Background and Aims

Low vitamin D (vitD) has been linked to increased cardiovascular (CV) risk, but the effects of vitD supplementation are not clarified. We evaluated the impact of vitD normalization on HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), which inversely correlates with CV risk, the proatherogenic serum cholesterol loading capacity (CLC), adipokine profile and subclinical atherosclerosis.

Methods and Results

Healthy premenopausal women with vitD deficiency (n=31) underwent supplementation. Subclinical atherosclerosis was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), measured with standard techniques. HDL CEC and serum CLC were measured by a radioisotopic and fluorimetric assay, respectively. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in HDL was quantified by the TBARS assay. Pre-β HDL were assessed by 2D-electrophoresis. Serum adipokines were measured by ELISA.

VitD replacement restored normal levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and significantly improved FMD (+4%; p<0.001), PWV (-4.1%: p<0.001) and AIx (-16.1%; p<0.001). Total CEC was significantly improved (+19.5%; p=0.003), with a specific increase in the ABCA1-mediated CEC (+70.8%; p<0.001). HDL-MDA slightly but significantly decreased (-9.6%; p=0.027) while no difference was detected in pre-β HDL. No change was observed in aqueous diffusion nor in the ABCG1-mediated CEC. Serum CLC was significantly reduced (-13.3%; p=0.026). Levels of adiponectin were increased (+50.6%; p<0.0001) and resistin decreased (-24.3%; p<0.0001). After vitD replacement, an inverse relationship was found linking the ABCA1-mediated CEC with pre-β HDL (r2=0.346; p<0.001) and resistin (r2=0.220; p=0.009).

Conclusion

Our data support vitD supplementation for CV risk prevention.

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