Anthropol Anz. 2020 Apr 1. doi: 10.1127/anthranz/2020/1048. [Epub ahead of print]
Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with consequent increase in bone fragility and fracture risk. Bone mineral density (BMD), the major determinant of osteoporotic fracture risk, has a particular genetic background. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is implicated in the regulation of bone mineral density. The present study evaluates the association between Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms Fok I (rs2228570), Cdx-2 (rs11568820), bone mineral density and fracture risk in Slovak postmenopausal women. A total of 403 unrelated Slovak postmenopausal women aged 43-86 years were genotyped using TaqMan®SNP Genotyping Assays. Lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip BMD/T-score were detected by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). We found the Fok I and Cdx-2 polymorphism in the VDR gene to be associated with osteoporotic fractures (non-vertebral fractures: Fok I p = 0.001; Cdx-2 p = 0.0000; all fractures: Fok I p = 0.0001; Cdx-2 p = 0.0000) (Fok I: OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.35-0.71; Cdx-2: OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.17-0.37). The present data suggest that VDR gene Fok I and Cdx-2 polymorphisms contribute to the determination of BMD in Slovak postmenopausal women and can probably be used with other genetic markers together to identify individuals at high risk of osteoporosis.