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Atypical femoral fracture in patients with bone metastasis receiving denosumab therapy: a retrospective study and systematic review

Takahashi M1Ozaki Y2Kizawa R3Masuda J3Sakamaki K4Kinowaki K5Umezu T6Kondoh C3Tanabe Y3Tamura N7Miura Y3Shigekawa T8Kawabata H7Baba N8Iguchi H9Takano T3.

BMC Cancer. 2019 Oct 22;19(1):980. doi: 10.1186/s12885-019-6236-6.

 

 

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

While denosumab has been shown to prevent skeletal-related events in patients with bone metastasis, there is a concern that it may cause atypical femoral fracture (AFF). While AFF has been reported in patients with osteoporosis receiving denosumab, data are scarce in the context of AFF occurring in patients with bone metastasis receiving monthly denosumab therapy.

METHODS:

To analyze the incidence of AFF in patients with bone metastasis, we reviewed the medical records of patients who had received monthly denosumab (120 mg) treatment from May 2012 to June 2017 at any of the three participant institutions.

RESULTS:

The study population consisted of 277 patients who had received a median of 10 doses (range, 1-79) of denosumab. Five patients were diagnosed as having AFF or symptomatic atypical femoral stress reaction (AFSR) needing surgical intervention, representing an incidence rate of 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 0.77-4.2). These patients had received 15, 45, 45, 46 or 47 doses of denosumab, respectively. Four of the patients had received prior zoledronic acid treatment. The results of our analysis suggested that long-term use of denosumab, especially for more than 3.5 years, and prior use of zoledronic acid were risk factors for the development of AFF.

CONCLUSIONS:

We found the AFF events in 5 patients (1.8%) among 277 cancer patients who had received monthly denosumab (120 mg) treatment. Long-term denosumab treatment and prior zoledronic acid treatment were identified as risk factors for the development of AFF.