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Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Scan (DXA) Findings in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Female: A Retrospective Cohort Study

D S Jawhar 1, N A Hassan 2, M H Shamssain 3

PMID: 32008020

Abstract
Introduction: Osteoporosis is a silent disease which has an effect on bone structure. Studies on the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) revealed conflicting results. We conducted a study to assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in females with T2DM and compare dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan results between diabetic and non-diabetic females in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Materials and methods: We retrospectively analysed hospital records and DXA scan measurements of 635 patients at tertiary hospital in Ajman, UAE. Patients with T2DM were compared to non-diabetic control group. Data were analysed using SPSS version 20. Student’s t test was used for continuous variables, while chi-square test for categorical variables. Relative risk (RR) and it’s 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) were calculated for prevalence of osteoporosis among the two group.

Results: In all 141 patients in the diabetic group and 428 patients in the control group, while 66 patients were excluded based on exclusion criteria. Prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly higher in diabetic group (RR: 1.2, 95%CI: 1.1, 1.2). BMD and T-score values were similar in diabetic and control groups. Z-score values of lumbar spine, L1 and L3 were significantly higher in diabetic group. Obese patients have significantly higher BMD than non-obese in both studied groups. Younger diabetic patient had significantly higher value of BMD, T-score and Z-score in left femur total hip.

Conclusion: Although BMD and T-score values were similar between the two groups, women with T2DM had significant higher prevalence of osteoporosis. utilization, cost and significant morbidities among patients with TDT. Therefore, regular monitoring and early detection with intensification of chelation therapy is essential.