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Effect of progestogen-only contraception on premenopausal fracture risk: a case-control study

Kyvernitakis I1,2,3Kostev K4Thomasius F5Stumpf U6Hadji P7,5.

Osteoporos Int. 2020 May 6. doi: 10.1007/s00198-020-05437-6. [Epub ahead of print]



Our study demonstrated that progestogen-only oral and intrauterine contraceptives are not associated with fracture risk independent from age.


The use of progestogen-only contraception, resulting in a hypoestrogenic state, has been associated with impaired bone acquisition and increased fracture risk. The aim of this large population-based study was to assess the fracture risk in association with the use of progestogen-only contraceptives (progestogen-only pills (POPs) and progestogen-containing IUDs (LNG-IUD)).


We identified 14,421 women between 16 and 55 years of age with a first-time diagnosis of fracture and matched them with 14,421 random controls using the Disease Analyzer Database.


The results of the first adjusted logistic regression model (ever use vs. never use of progestogen-only contraceptives) revealed that there was no significant association between the use of POPs (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.90-1.07, p = 0.657) or LNG-IUDs (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.81-1.21, p = 0.945) and fracture incidence. Also, in the second regression model, we observed no effect of duration of use of POPs (OR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.98-1.03, p = 0.672) or LNG-IUDs (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.87-1.02, p = 0.177) on fracture occurrence. We also observed no effect in different age groups.


Our study results indicate that progestogen-only contraception (either POPs or LNG-IUPs) is not associated with fracture risk and may be considered a bone-safe option for adults and adolescents.