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Effects of smoking habit change on hospitalized fractures: a retrospective cohort study in a male population

Insulin resistance negatively affects bone quality not quantity: the relationship between bone and adipose tissue.
de Araújo IM1, Parreiras-E-Silva LT1, Carvalho AL1, Elias J Jr1, Salmon CEG2, de Paula FJA3.

Osteoporos Int. 2020 Feb 27. doi: 10.1007/s00198-020-05365-5. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract
The present study suggests that insulin resistance has no association with bone quantity, but quality.

INTRODUCTION:
The literature has contradictory results concerning the influence of insulin resistance on bone. The present study sought to evaluate the association of insulin resistance and adipose tissue with either bone mineral density or the trabecular bone score.

METHODS:
The study included 56 individuals (36 women and 20 men): age = 46.6 ± 14.2 years, weight = 67.8 ± 10.9 kg, height = 1.65 ± 0.10 m and BMI = 24.8 ± 3.9 kg/m2. The investigational protocol included biochemical determinations and bone assessment by dual X-ray absorptiometry for evaluation of bone mineral density and trabecular bone score. Magnetic resonance was employed to estimate visceral, subcutaneous and bone marrow adipose tissues, as well as intrahepatic lipids.

RESULTS:
The bone mineral density of the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip were not associated with insulin resistance-related parameters [visceral adipose tissue, intrahepatic lipids and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. In contrast, there was a negative relationship between the trabecular bone score and all these components. The association between the trabecular bone score and HOMA-IR was reinforced after adjustment for age and BMI. Marrow adipose tissue was negatively associated with both bone mineral density and trabecular bone score.

CONCLUSIONS:
The present study shows that the trabecular bone score is negatively associated with marrow adipose tissue, insulin resistance, visceral adipose tissue and intrahepatic lipid measurements. Additionally, there was a negative relationship between saturated lipids in marrow adipose tissue and the trabecular bone score. These results encourage further studies to investigate the role of the trabecular bone score exam in the clinical evaluation of osteoporosis in conditions of insulin resistance.

A trans-ethnic two-stage polygenetic scoring analysis detects genetic correlation between osteoporosis and schizophrenia.
Liu L1, Wen Y1, Ning Y1, Li P1, Cheng B1, Cheng S1, Zhang L1, Ma M1, Qi X1, Liang C1, Yang T2, Chen X3, Tan L3, Shen H4, Tian Q4, Deng HW4, Ma X5, Zhang F6, Zhu F7.

Clin Transl Med. 2020 Feb 27;9(1):21. doi: 10.1186/s40169-020-00272-y.

Abstract
BACKGROUNDS:
To explore the genetic correlation between schizophrenia (SCZ) and osteoporosis (OP).

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, MEASUREMENTS:
We conducted a trans-ethnic two-stage genetic correlation analysis of OP and SCZ, totally invoking 2286 Caucasia subjects in discovery stage and 4124 Chinese subjects in replication stage. The bone mineral density (BMD) and bone area values of ulna & radius, hip and spine were measured using Hologic 4500W dual energy X-ray absorptiometry machine. SCZ was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. For the genome-wide association study (GWAS) of Caucasian OP, Chinese OP and Chinese SCZ, SNP genotyping was performed using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array. For the GWAS of Caucasian SCZ, SNP genotyping was conducted using the Affymetrix 5.0 array, Affymetrix 6.0 array and Illumina 550 K array. Polygenetic risk scoring (PRS) analysis was conducted by PRSice software. Also, Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LD Score regression) analysis was performed to evaluate the genetic correlation between OP and SCZ. Multi-trait analysis of GWAS (MTAG) was performed to detect novel candidate genes for osteoporosis and SCZ.

RESULTS:
In the Caucasia discovery samples, significant genetic correlations were observed for ulna & radius BMD vs. SCZ (P value = 0.010), ulna & radius area vs. SCZ (P value = 0.031). In the Chinese replication samples, we observed significant correlation for ulna & radius area vs. SCZ (P value = 0.019). In addition, LD Score regression also identified significant genetic correlations between SCZ and bone phenotypes in Caucasian and Chinese sample respectively. MTAG analysis identified several novel candidate genes, such as CTNNA2 (MTAG P value = 2.24 × 10-6) for SCZ and FADS2 (MTAG P value = 2.66 × 10-7) for osteoporosis.

CONCLUSIONS:
Our study results support the overlapped genetic basis for osteoporosis and SCZ, and provide novel clues for elucidating the biological mechanism of increased osteoporosis risk in SCZ patients.

The Epidemiology of Hip Fracture among Subjects with Pyogenic Liver Abscess (PLA): A Nationwide Population-Based Study.
Hsu CC1, Ko JY1,2, Lin CL3, Hsu HC4,5, Chen HT5,6,7, Lin CC3, Kuo SJ4,5.

Biomed Res Int. 2020 Feb 12;2020:5901962. doi: 10.1155/2020/5901962. eCollection 2020.

Abstract
Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a potentially fatal disease that can stimulate prominent systemic inflammation. Osteoporotic hip fracture is a major complication of systemic inflammation. This study tried to determine the epidemiology of hip fractures among PLA patients. All subjects admitted due to PLA during 1999∼2010 were assessed, excluding the subjects with a history of high energy trauma, malignancy, and previous hip fracture. We matched the control subjects to PLA patients according to age, gender, and the coding of osteoporosis by 1 : 4 ratio. The PLA patients had a 1.17-fold risk of hip fracture than the controls (aHR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.07-1.29) after adjusting for gender, age, and comorbidities. Considering death as the competing event of suicide, the PLA patients had 1.10-fold suicide risk (aHR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00-1.21) than the control subjects under the competing risks regression model. The cumulative incidence of hip fracture was higher in the PLA cohort (log-rank test, p < 0.001). When compared to the controls, the fracture risk was 18.4-fold (aHR = 18.4, 95% CI = 13.0-26.1) for the PLA patients admitted 2-3 times per year and 46.0-fold (aHR = 46.0, 95% CI = 31.2-67.8) for the PLA patients admitted ≧4 times per year. The impact of PLA is more prominent among the subjects aged <45 years (aHR = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.42-5.56). Preventive measures for hip fracture might be warranted for PLA patients. Pelvic floor muscle training: mechanisms of action for the improvement of genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Mercier J1, Morin M2, Tang A3, Reichetzer B4, Lemieux MC5, Samir K6, Zaki D4, Gougeon F7, Dumoulin C1. Climacteric. 2020 Feb 27:1-6. doi: 10.1080/13697137.2020.1724942. [Epub ahead of print] Abstract Objective: This study aims to investigate the mechanism of action of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for the improvement of the signs and symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) in postmenopausal women with GSM and urinary incontinence (UI).Methods: Twenty-nine women were included in the secondary analysis of a single-arm feasibility study. Using color Doppler ultrasound, the peak systolic velocity, time-averaged maximum velocity, and pulsatility index of the internal pudendal and dorsal clitoral arteries were measured at rest and after a pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction task. PFM function was assessed by dynamometry, and vulvovaginal tissue elasticity was measured using the Vaginal Atrophy Index.Results: PFMT significantly improved blood flow parameters in both arteries (p < 0.05) and significantly increased the speed of PFM relaxation after a contraction (p = 0.003). After the intervention, a marginally significant decrease in PFM tone was observed, as well as an increase in PFM strength (p = 0.060 and p = 0.051, respectively). Finally, improvements in skin elasticity and introitus width were observed as measured by the Vaginal Atrophy Index (p < 0.007).Conclusion: Our findings suggest that PFMT improves blood flow in vulvovaginal tissues, PFM relaxation capacity, and vulvovaginal tissue elasticity in postmenopausal women with GSM and UI