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Factors of Mineral Homeostasis Impairment and Bone Mineral Density Loss in Women With Central Hypogonadism I Ilovayskaya 1 2, V Zektser 3, L Lazebnik 2

I Ilovayskaya 1 2V Zektser 3L Lazebnik 2

Climacteric doi: 10.1080/13697137.2020.1767567. 

Abstract

Objective: The aims of the study were to estimate markers of mineral turnover and bone mineral density (BMD) in young women with central hypogonadism (CH) in comparison with healthy young and postmenopausal women, and to reveal the possible impact of different factors on BMD.

Method: We examined 73 patients with CH (mean age 25 [21.2; 30.5] years, mean duration of amenorrhea 5 [2.3; 10.1] years), 47 young healthy women (mean age 24 [23.1; 28.0] years) and 50 healthy women in natural postmenopause (mean age 56 [53; 58] years, mean duration of 6 [2; 10] years since last menstrual period). Women with CH were examined before and after 12 months of treatment with 17β-estradiol 2 mg and dydrogesterone 10 mg in continuous sequential fashion.

Results: Levels of calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were statistically higher in women with CH without treatment than in young healthy women but did not differ from those in postmenopausal women. Prevalence of T-score ≤-2.5 standard deviations was higher in CH than in postmenopause both in lumbar vertebrae and total femur. Factors that were responsible for lower BMD in young women with CH included the duration of hypoestrogenism, primary amenorrhea, and hypoandrogenism.

Conclusion: Central hypogonadism at a young age poses a higher risk of bone metabolism impairment than physiological menopause.