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Hyponatremia, Hypokalemia, and Fragility Fractures in Old Patients: More than an Association?

Schiara LAM1, Moirano G2, Grosso E3, Richiardi L2, Tibaldi M1, Spertino E1, Vezza C1, Isaia GC1, Massaia M1, D’Amelio P4,5.

Calcif Tissue Int. 2020 Feb 19. doi: 10.1007/s00223-020-00675-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract
PURPOSE:
Hyponatremia and hypokalemia are common among elderly and have been associated with osteoporosis, we evaluate the role of these electrolytes as risk for fragility fractures.

METHODS:
This study is divided in two parts: one retrospective and one prospective. We retrospectively collected data on urgently admitted patients for femoral fragility fractures (Fx) or for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and patients admitted for elective hip/knee replacement surgery for osteoarthrosis (OA). Age, sex, serum sodium, potassium, creatinine, and comorbidities were recorded. We enrolled prospectively in-patients from our unit: age, sex, comorbidities, drugs, and fragility fractures were recorded. Blood electrolytes were measured. Cognitive function, nutrition, muscular strength, and balance were evaluated by standard tests. The mortality rate was recorded with a follow-up after hospital discharge.

RESULTS:
The retrospective study included 2166 subjects: 702 Fx and 1464 controls (907 AMI, 557 OA): the prevalence of hyponatremia was similar in Fx and AMI, whereas it was higher in Fx with respect to OA (p < 0.001) as well as hypokalemia (p < 0.001). Sodium decrease was associated with higher fracture risk. Among the 284 subjects included in the prospective study, 50 patients were hyponatremic, more likely malnourished, and presented a higher prevalence of fragility fractures (p = 0.008). They had a higher mortality after hospital discharge (HR = 1.80, p = 0.005), however, this association disappears after correction for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that hyponatremia and hypokalemia have to be considered as a marker of poor health more than an independent fracture risk.