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Incidence of fractures in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus—a retrospective study with 4420 patients

Stumpf, U., Hadji, P., van den Boom, L. et al.

Osteoporos Int (2020).



This retrospective study investigated the incidence of fracture in 4420 type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients. Our findings indicate that patients with T1DM have an increased incidence of fractures. Further studies and preventive measures are urgently needed.


The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of fracture in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).


This study is based on the German Disease Analyzer database and included 4258 adult individuals with a T1DM diagnosis documented between January 2000 and December 2015 in 1203 general practices in Germany. Individual matching of T1DM and non-diabetic patients was performed. The cumulative incidence of new fractures was shown for up to 10 years after the index date using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional hazard models (dependent variable: incident fracture) were used to estimate the effect of T1DM on fracture incidence, as well as the effect of predefined variables on fracture incidence.


After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative fracture incidence was 18.4% for T1DM patients and 9.9% for non-diabetic patients (p < 0.001). A strong association between T1DM and fractures was found (HR, 2.01 (95% CI, 1.70–2.38) p < 0.001) in both female and male patients. Significant differences between T1DM and non-diabetes patients were found in lower leg/ankle, foot and toe, shoulder/upper arm, and rib(s), sternum and thoracic spine fractures. A significant association between higher age and fracture incidence was observed in T1DM patients. Conclusions In summary, we found that patients with T1DM have a twofold increased fracture rate compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, fractures were associated with increased age and high HbA1c