Giorgia Grisotto 1 2 3 , Peter Francis Raguindin 1 2 4 , Marija Glisic 1 4 , Lia Bally 5 , Arjola Bano, et al.
J Nutr. 2021 Mar 9;nxab003.doi: 10.1093/jn/nxab003. Online ahead of print.
Background: Adherence to a healthy diet could contribute to maintaining adequate health throughout the meno pausal transition, but data are scarce. Objective: We evaluated the association between menopausal status and changes in dietary intake in Swiss adult women.
Methods: Cross-sectional (n = 2439) and prospective analyses (n = 1656) were conducted between 2009 and 2012 (first follow-up) among women (mean age ± SD, 58.2 ± 10.5 y) living in Lausanne, Switzerland. In both visits, dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ, and menopausal status was classified based on the presence or absence of menstruations. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate the cross-sectional association of menopausal status (postmenopausal compared with premenopausal) at the first follow-up with food intake and dietary recommendations. To examine whether menopausal status (premenopausal as reference group, menopausal transition, and postmenopausal) during 5 y of follow-up was associated with longitudinal changes in diet, including adherence to dietary Swiss recommendations, we applied multivariable linear and logistic mixed models adjusted for several covariates.
Results: At the first follow-up, postmenopausal women consumed less (P < 0.002) meat [median (IQR) 57.2 (35-86.2) compared with 62.5 (41.2-95.2) g/d], pasta [61.8 (37.5-89.2) compared with 85 (57.8-128) g/d], and added sugar [0.1 (0-4) compared with 0.7 (0-8) g/d] and more dairy products [126 (65.4-214) compared with 109 (64.5-182) g/d] and fruit [217 (115-390) compared with 174 (83.2-319) g/d] than premenopausal women. However, linear regression analysis adjusted for potential confounding factors showed no independent (cross-sectional) associations of menopausal status with total energy intake (TEI) and individual macro- or micronutrient intakes.
In the prospective analysis, compared with women who remained premenopausal during follow-up (n = 244), no differences were found in changes in TEI, dietary intakes, or adherence to the Swiss dietary recommendations in women transitioning from premenopausal to postmenopausal (n = 229) and who remained postmenopausal (n = 1168).