J Pediatr (Rio J). 2020 Apr 23. pii: S0021-7557(20)30136-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2020.03.003. [Epub ahead of print]
Metabolic bone disease concerns a broad spectrum of conditions related to reduced bone density. Metabolic bone disease has been linked to chronic inflammatory diseases, such as ulcerative colitis. This study examines the prevalence of metabolic bone disease in ulcerative colitis patients and explores possible clinical predictors.
The authors performed a retrospective study involving children and adolescents with confirmed ulcerative colitis between January 2013 and December 2018. Bone density was evaluated through a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan of the spine and total body. Osteoporosis was defined as a bone mineral density Z-score of <-2 and osteopenia as a Z-score of between -1.0 and -2.
A total of 37 patients were included in this analysis, with a mean age of 13.4±3.9 years and a mean duration of illness of 2.1±2.4 years. Using lumbar spine Z-scores and total body Z-scores, osteoporosis and osteopenia were identified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan measurements in 11 patients (29.7%) and 15 patients (40.5%), and in ten patients (27%) and 13 patients (35%), respectively. Lumbar spine Z-scores were significantly positively associated with male gender (B=2.02; p=0.0001), and negatively associated with the presence of extraintestinal manifestations (B=-1.51, p=0.009) and the use of biologics (B=-1.33, p=0.004). However, total body Z-scores were positively associated with body mass index Z-scores (B=0.26, p=0.004) and duration of illness in years (B=0.35, p=0.003).
Metabolic bone disease is very common in this cohort of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents with ulcerative colitis and its occurrence appears to increase in female patients who suffer from extraintestinal manifestations.