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Modelling Human Locomotion to Inform Exercise Prescription for Osteoporosis

Martelli S1Beck B2Saxby D2,3Lloyd D2,3Pivonka P4Taylor M5.

Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2020 Apr 25. doi: 10.1007/s11914-020-00592-5. [Epub ahead of print]

 

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

We review the literature on hip fracture mechanics and models of hip strain during exercise to postulate the exercise regimen for best promoting hip strength.

RECENT FINDINGS:

The superior neck is a common location for hip fracture and a relevant exercise target for osteoporosis. Current modelling studies showed that fast walking and stair ambulation, but not necessarily running, optimally load the femoral neck and therefore theoretically would mitigate the natural age-related bone decline, being easily integrated into routine daily activity. High intensity jumps and hopping have been shown to promote anabolic response by inducing high strain in the superior anterior neck. Multidirectional exercises may cause beneficial non-habitual strain patterns across the entire femoral neck. Resistance knee flexion and hip extension exercises can induce high strain in the superior neck when performed using maximal resistance loadings in the average population. Exercise can stimulate an anabolic response of the femoral neck either by causing higher than normal bone strain over the entire hip region or by causing bending of the neck and localized strain in the superior cortex. Digital technologies have enabled studying interdependences between anatomy, bone distribution, exercise, strain and metabolism and may soon enable personalized prescription of exercise for optimal hip strength.