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Parameters of Oxidative Stress in Reproductive and Postmenopausal Mexican Women

Montoya-Estrada A1, Velázquez-Yescas KG1, Veruete-Bedolla DB1, Ruiz-Herrera JD1, Villarreal-Barranca A1, Romo-Yañez J1, Ortiz-Luna GF2, Arellano-Eguiluz A2, Solis-Paredes M3, Flores-Pliego A4, Espejel-Nuñez A4, Estrada-Gutierrez G5, Reyes-Muñoz E1.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Feb 26;17(5). pii: E1492. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051492.

Abstract
In the reproductive phase, women experience cyclic changes in the ovaries and uterus, and hormones regulate these changes. Menopause is the permanent loss of menstruation after 12 months of amenorrhea. Menopause is also linked to a decrease in estrogen production, causing an imbalance in oxidative stress. We aimed to compare the three stages of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) between reproductive-aged women (RAW) and postmenopausal women (PMW) in Mexico. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 84 women from Mexico City, including 40 RAW and 44 PMW. To determine the oxidative stress of the participants, several markers of lipid damage were measured: dienes conjugates (DC), lipohydroperoxides (LHP), and malondialdehyde (MDA); exposure to protein carbonyl is indicative of oxidative modified proteins, and TAC is indicative of the antioxidant defense system. Biomarkers of oxidative stress were significantly lower in RAW vs. PMW. DC were 1.31 ± 0.65 vs. 1.7 ± 0.51 pmol DC/mg dry weight (p = 0.0032); LHP were 4.95 ± 2.20 vs. 11.30 ± 4.24 pmol LHP/mg dry weight (p < 0.0001); malondialdehyde was 20.37 ± 8.20 vs. 26.10 ± 8.71 pmol MDA/mg dry weight (p = 0.0030); exposure of protein carbonyl was 3954 ± 884 vs. 4552 ± 1445 pmol PC/mg protein (p = 0.042); and TAC was 7244 ± 1512 vs. 8099 ± 1931 pmol Trolox equivalent/mg protein (p = 0.027). PMW display significantly higher oxidative stress markers compared to RAW; likewise, PMW show a higher TAC.