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Prevalence of osteoporosis and its associated factors among postmenopausal women in Kiambu County, Kenya: a household survey

Sitati FC1, Gichangi P2, Obimbo MM3.

Arch Osteoporos. 2020 Feb 28;15(1):31. doi: 10.1007/s11657-020-0685-z.

This household survey involved determining the bone mineral density of 254 postmenopausal African women in Kiambu County, Kenya. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 26.4%. A positive association between osteoporosis and advancing age, poverty, illiteracy, and being underweight was found.

Osteoporosis is a worldwide health problem with high morbidity and mortality. In Kenya, there is paucity of information on the magnitude and risk profiles of those at risk. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women in a Kenyan periurban population.

This community-based cross-sectional survey involving 254 postmenopausal African women in Kiambu County, Kenya, was carried out between October 2017 and February 2018. Multi-stage random sampling approach was adopted where households were selected after sampling sub-counties and enumeration areas. A structured questionnaire was administered and physical examination done on recruited participants by the principal investigator and research assistants. Weight and height of the participants were measured and bone mineral density was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 21.0, SPSS Inc.

The mean age of the women was 64.6 years and ranging between 50 and 95 years. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 26.4%. Osteoporosis was associated with advancing age (p < 0.0001), low socioeconomic status (p = 0.007), lower education level (p < 0.0001), being underweight (BMI < 18.5) (p < 0.0001), family history of osteoporosis (p = 0.006), and caffeine intake (p = 0.002). The association between osteoporosis and occupation, marital status, age at menarche, and exercise was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of osteoporosis among the select women in Kenya is high and is associated with advancing age, poverty, illiteracy, and being underweight. There is need to implement intervention strategies based on these findings to control osteoporosis in groups at risk.