Biomed Pharmacother2020 May 15;127:110207. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110207. Online ahead of print.
Anabolic therapies for osteoporosis including dietary polyphenols promote osteoblast function by influencing its energy metabolism. Among the dietary polyphenols, the beneficial skeletal effects of genistein (an isoflavone), kaempferol (a flavone), resveratrol (RES, a stilbenoid) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, a catechin) have been reported in preclinical studies. We studied the action mechanism of these nutraceuticals on osteoblast bioenergetics. All stimulated differentiation of human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB). However, only EGCG and RES stimulated mitochondrial parameters including basal and maximum respiration, spare respiratory capacity and ATP production (a measure of the activity of electron transport chain/ETC). Increases in these parameters were due to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and consequent upregulation of several mitochondrial proteins including those involved in ETC. Rotenone blocked the osteogenic effect of EGCG and RES suggesting the mediatory action of mitochondria. Both compounds rapidly activated AMPK, and dorsomorphin (an AMPK inhibitor) abolished ATP production stimulated by these compounds. Moreover, EGCG and RES upregulated the mitochondrial biogenesis factor, PGC-1α which is downstream of AMPK activation, and silencing PGC-1α blocked their stimulatory effects on ATP production and hFOB differentiation. Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) is an upstream regulator of PGC-1α, and both compounds increased the expression of AdipoR1 but not AdipoR2. Silencing AdipoR1 blocked the upregulation of EGCG/RES-induced PGC-1α and hFOB differentiation. In rat calvarium, both compounds increased AdipoR1, PGC-1α, and RunX2 (the osteoblast transcription factor) with a concomitant increase in mitochondrial copy number and ATP levels. We conclude that EGCG and RES display osteogenic effects by reprogramming osteoblastic bioenergetics by acting as the AdipoR1 agonists.