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Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and hypertension in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2007-2010

Kwak JH1, Hong YC2, Choi YH1,3.

Public Health Nutr. 2020 Jan 17:1-11. doi: 10.1017/S1368980019003665. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract
OBJECTIVE:
A recent meta-analysis suggested that the association between vitamin D and risk of hypertension was markedly stronger in women aged <55 years in observational data, while the association became null in women aged ≥55 years. We therefore hypothesized that this difference in associations might potentially be caused by the change in oestrogen around menopause. Our objective was to investigate associations between vitamin D status and hypertension risk and to evaluate those associations as they may differ according to menopausal status. DESIGN: A cross-sectional population survey conducted by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. SETTING: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2007-2010 formed the setting for the present study. PARTICIPANTS: We analysed data from 2098 premenopausal women and 2298 postmenopausal women. RESULTS: After adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioural and dietary factors, higher concentrations both of serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3) revealed significant dose-dependent trends with lower risk of hypertension (Ptrend = 0·005 and 0·014, respectively) in premenopausal women. In those women, 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l (sufficient; in contrast to deficient, vitamin D < 30 nmol/l) appeared to have a protective effect against hypertension (OR = 0·64, 95 % CI 0·39, 1·02 for total 25(OH)D and OR = 0·60, 95 % CI 0·36, 1·00 for 25(OH)D3). Neither association with hypertension was observed in postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with lower risk of hypertension in premenopausal women, but not in postmenopausal women.