Menopause. 2019 Dec 30. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001452. [Epub ahead of print]
Weight gain and increased body fat mass are among the common complications of menopause. In addition to hormonal changes, behavioral and environmental factors aggravate transition through this phase. This study uses a structural equation model (SEM) to evaluate factors associated with overweight and obesity in menopausal women.
This is a cross-sectional study of 4,471 women (pre/perimenopausal 3,150, menopausal 1,321) from baseline data of the Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study in the west region of Iran in 2018. Obesity and overweight were the outcome variables. SEM was used to examine the relationships, using IBM SPSS, AMOS version 23.
The mean body fat percentage and visceral fat area in menopausal women was significantly greater than among pre/perimenopause women. The direct association of higher socioeconomic status (SES) with a healthy dietary pattern was stronger among pre/perimenopausal women than among menopausal women (ß = 0.574 vs ß = 0.552). In both groups, less physical activity was associated with depression and musculoskeletal disorders, and this association was stronger in menopausal women (ß = -0.174 vs ß = -0.215; P > 0.05). Overweight and obesity were directly decreased (ß = -0.011, P > 0.05) and indirectly increased (ß = 0.013, P > 0.05) in pre/perimenopausal women by sleep duration, but they were directly and indirectly decreased in menopausal women.
The direct and indirect effects of well-known risk factors associated with overweight and obesity were found to be different in pre/perimenopausal and menopausal groups. Some risk factors showed stronger effects among menopausal women compared with the pre/perimenopausal women. Physical activity and healthy dietary pattern had a mediator impact in the two study groups.