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Sustained Delivery of Alendronate by Engineered Collagen Scaffold for the Repair of Osteoporotic Bone Defects and Resistance to Bone Loss

Yuyang Zeng 1Muran Zhou 1Shan Mou 1Jie Yang 1Quan Yuan 1Liang Guo 1Aimei Zhong 1Jiecong Wang 1Jiaming Sun 1Zhenxing Wang 1

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2020 May 18. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.36997. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Researches of biomaterials for osteoporotic bone defects focus on the improvement of its anti-osteoporosis ability, due to osteoporosis is a kind of systemic and long-range bone metabolism disorder. Nevertheless, how to steadily deliver anti-osteoporosis drugs in osteoporotic bone defects is rarely studied. Reported evidences have shown that alendronate (Aln) is known to not only restrain osteoclasts from mediating bone resorption but also stimulate osteoblasts to regenerate bone tissue. Here, we developed an engineered implantable scaffold that could sustainably release Aln for osteoporotic bone defects. Briefly, Aln was added into 2% collagen (Col) solution to form a 5mg/mL mixture. Then the mixture was filled into pre-designed round models (diameter:5 mm, height:2 mm) and crosslinked to obtain engineered Col-Aln scaffolds. The release kinetics showed that Aln was released at an average rate of 2.99 μg/d in the initial 8 days and could sustainably release for one month. To detect the repair effects of the Col-Aln scaffolds for osteoporotic defects, the Col and Col-Aln scaffolds were implanted into 5 mm cranial defects in ovariectomized rats. After 3 months, the cranial defects implanted with Col-Aln scaffolds achieved more bone regeneration in defect area (11.74±3.82%) than Col scaffold (5.12±1.15%) (p<0.05). Moreover, ovariectomized rats in Col-Aln scaffold group possessed more trabecular bone in femur metaphysis than Col scaffold group as analyzed by Micro-CT. This study demonstrated the engineered Col-Aln scaffold has the potential to repair osteoporotic bone defects and resist bone loss in osteoporosis.